Collective Bargaining Contd

Collective Bargaining Contd

Collective Bargaining, (cont�d)As well as wages and conditions of employment, collective bargaining often covers the settlement of disputes by laying down a procedure to be followed. Disputes may occur either over the interpretation of an existing agreement, which may in the last resort go to arbitration, or in negotiations of new conditions of employment, which may be assisted by the Ministry of Labour's conciliation services. But, except in special circumstances, a dispute can be ended only with the consent of the parties. Legislative control has so far been unnecessary because employers and unions have shown reason in collective bargaining and dispute settlement, although more recent strikes, as in basic services such as the docks and transport, have harmed the general public and antagonized public opinion.

How bargaining proceeds and on what basis depends on the institutions and circumstances. The alternative for collective bar-gaining as a system is either a return to individual bargaining or complete state control. Some critics of large-scale collective bargaining between nation-wide employers' organizations and employees' trade unions have argued that employees and employers have little inducement to show sufficient regard for the national interest. Others have argued that the solution is an effective law against restrictive practices by both employers' and employees' organizations and monetary and budgetary policy which prevents inflation so that employers and trade unions cannot combine to raise costs and pass them on to the consumer in higher prices. 5

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