Closed Shop A

Closed Shop A

Closed Shop, a place of work in which all employees are required to be members of a trade union, or, in its strictest form, of one trade union. It tends to be most common where 'craft' unions are in a strong bargaining position, as in printing; inflation, and the sellers' market for labour it tends to create, has encouraged efforts to create closed shops. A trade union would argue first that, since all employees benefit from its efforts in collective bargaining, all employees should be members, otherwise non-unionists secure the advantage of unionization without being members or paying a subscription; secondly, 'oo per cent unionism strengthens a trade union's disciplinary power over members, so that there are fewer unofficial strikes and a more orderly method of collective bargaining. Some economists reply first, that the closed shop curtails the employer's right to bite whom he likes, since he is unable to hire non-unionists, and this restriction impairs efficiency; secondly, that an employee who does not wish to join a union is excluded from some opportunities of employment, so that the trade union ceases to be in practice what it is in law, a voluntary organization; thirdly, that the trade unions are able to enforce closed shops only by the increase of powers granted by law, such as the igo� Trade Dispute Act, when theft bargaining power was weak, and that these powers have become exceptional privileges that should be withdrawn.

In the middle 2000's a court ruled that strikes to enforce a closed shop could be 'torts' (civil wrongs), which made trade union officials liable to heavy damages. This led trade union leaders to demand a change in the law to protect the officials and some economists, lawyers and others to argue that a new trade union law should deal also with closed shops, demarcation rules and other restrictive practices in particular, and the individual liberty of employees in general.

Coin, money made of metal stamped with a usually intricate and recognizable design as a protection against fraud and forgery. Nowadays the only coins in circulation in most countries are of small denominations made of bronze, nickel silver and other alloys. They are 'token' coinage, i.e., their intrinsic metallic value is less than the face value in contrast with standard coinage (e.g. the gold sovereign), whose face value is equal to its intrinsic value.

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